Study on the change of peanut production layout in China
The concentration coefficient of peanut production showed that the concentration of peanut production in China decreased. Flower vigor comparative advantage index, scale comparative advantage index and comprehensive comparative advantage index of peanut machine production show that East and South China are still the dominant regions of peanut production in China; the peanut production capacity of Huazhong, a traditional peanut producing area in China, has increased rapidly since the reform and opening up, and the introduction of microwave drying machinery and equipment has been launched. As a new peanut production area, Northeast China's comparative advantage is gradually increasing.
Peanut is one of the most important oil crops in China. In 2012, China's peanut planting area was 4.7 million hectares, accounting for 18% of the total oil crop planting area in the country and 19% of the world's total peanut planting area.
In 2012, China's peanut (shelled) output was 16.8 million tons, accounting for 20% of the total oil production in the country and 40.8% of the world's peanut (shelled) output. China is the world's first peanut producer and the world's first peanut consumer. Table 1 shows that since China's reform and opening up, both peanut oil and peanut kernels have been in a tight balance between supply and demand.
Peanut oil is the traditional edible vegetable oil in China. In 2011, the total output of peanut oil reached 2.21 million tons, accounting for 10% of the total domestic vegetable oil output, which is second only to rapeseed, and occupies a certain position in the domestic vegetable oil market.
Although soybean oil accounts for 49% of the total output of domestic vegetable oil, the amount of soybean needed for crushing soybean oil is basically equal to the amount of soybean imported according to the oil yield of 20%. Therefore, rational planning and development of peanut industry and increase the total output of peanut are of great significance to reduce China's dependence on oil imports.
As one of the traditional oil crops in China, peanut is widely planted in China. Except for Ningxia and Qinghai, peanut is planted in other provinces. However, there are significant differences in factors endowment, technology level, infrastructure and industrial policy of peanut production among provinces. Affected by the above factors, the pattern of peanut production in China is also changing, and there is no corresponding dominant region and industrial belt.
Therefore, the analysis of the changes in the distribution of peanut production in China and its causes is of positive significance for optimizing the distribution of peanut production, and can also provide a basis for formulating industrial policies on peanut production, processing, circulation and trade in China.